North Dakota was admitted to the union in 1889. Its name was derived from the Sioux word “Dakota” which translates to “friendly” or “ally”.
North Dakota definitely lives up to its name and is nicknamed the Peace Garden State. One of its main attractions is the International Peace Garden, which is a beautiful park located between the North Dakota and Canadian borders. It was built as a representation of a pledge made in 1932 between the United States and Canada in which both countries agreed to never go to war against one another.
The Peace Garden State is one of the least densely populated states in the nation. In fact, cows outnumber people by three times! Its smallest city, Maza, had a population of 5 during the 2020 census.
The state is a major producer of crops, particularly wheat, dry legumes, flaxseed, canola, honey, sugar, and sunflowers. Over 90% of its territory, approximately 39.1 million acres, is covered in farmland and ranches. Not even 1% is forest land.
Even though North Dakota is the least-visited state in the US, it’s known as the state where explorers Lewis and Clark spent most of their time during their journey. It’s also where President Theodore Roosevelt lived as a rancher.
North Dakota is famous for its scenic beauty and natural wildlife. The state is covered in grasslands, rivers, hills, valleys, lakes, wetlands, and Badlands. It’s home to 63 wildlife refuges, which is more than any other state in the nation.
It has a continental climate where you can expect short, hot summers and long, harsh winters— occasionally year-round cold and snow. The weather is colder in the northeast than in the southwest but natural disasters are experienced state-wide nonetheless.
What natural disasters does North Dakota have?
North Dakota’s most common natural disasters include floods, severe storms, winter storms, wildfires, extreme heat and drought, tornadoes, landslides, and power outages. Another less significant disaster includes earthquakes.
Between 1953 and 2019, North Dakota declared 59 major disasters, of which floods and severe storms happened the most according to FEMA.
Floods are common along the rivers of North Dakota. Flood season is during the spring and summer months because of the heavy precipitation during thunderstorms and the warming temperatures which melt the snow quickly. Meanwhile, the soil surrounding the rivers is already saturated and beginning to thaw, thereby causing the river to swell, jam (with ice), and overflow.
The Missouri River, the Red River, Devils Lake, and many other bodies of water are known to flood statewide. North Dakota has experienced many significant floods, including:
- The Red River Flood of 1997: The winter season brought in above-average snowfall which led to a spring of rapidly melting snow and ice. The Red River swelled to unprecedented levels and overflowed up to three miles inland. The preventative measures taken at the time failed and thousands of people, primarily in Grand Forks, were affected. The cost of damages exceeded $3.5 billion but no one was killed.
- The Souris River Flood of 2011: Much like the Red River Flood of 1997, this flood occurred as a result of heavy snowfall from the previous season followed by significant levels of spring precipitation. By June, the water started overtopping dikes in Minot, and residents were warned of the possibility of flooding due to the dikes breaking. Luckily, over 11,000 people evacuated with enough warning time. Just as predicted, the flood brought in record-breaking flood levels.
North Dakota’s most populous regions, such as Grand Forks, Bismarck, and Fargo, are located near major rivers, therefore it’s important for North Dakotans to have a mitigation and preparedness plan.
2. Severe Storms
Severe storms come in the form of thunderstorms and lightning, supercells, strong gusty winds, heavy precipitation, and hail. Thunderstorms cause the Peace Garden State the most devastation (in terms of property and crops), financial loss, and injuries than any other disaster. These storms cost the state millions of dollars each year.
North Dakota experiences an average of 19 to 35 thunderstorm days a year, depending on the region, and about 13 windstorm days a year. Statistically, almost three-fourths of all thunderstorms occurred between June and August, with July being the peak month. Nearly 96% of windstorms occurred between March and September, with June being the peak month. The peak time for severe thunderstorms was between the hours of the late afternoon and into the early morning.
These are some interesting storm statistics for North Dakota:
- The largest hail stones ever recorded were found in both Mercer and Sioux Counties. They each had a diameter of 5 inches.
- The state’s lightning density is 4.3 flashes per square miles.
- The wettest location in the state is Wahpeton, with an average annual precipitation of 21.87 inches.
- The strongest recorded wind gusts were 143 mph in Slope County.
- One of the worst thunderstorms in North Dakota’s history occurred on July 21, 1987. It produced twelve tornadoes, baseball-sized hail, high winds that knocked over power lines and towers and cost the state $4 million in damages.
Severe storms are powerful and dangerous. Lightning can strike several miles outside of the area of the storm, so be prepared to go indoors as soon as a storm is approaching your area.
Most storms in North Dakota have a duration of 23.6 minutes so be patient and resume any outdoor activities once the storm has passed. It's crucial to become prepared a storm occurs. You can learn more about storm preparedness here!
3. Winter Storms
North Dakota’s winter season begins around late November and ends around late March. The state experiences an average of 2 to 4 severe winter storms annually. These storms oftentimes bring snow, heavy winds, freezing temperatures, low visibility, snowdrifts, and ice accumulation.
The Peace Garden State experienced several significant winter storms, including:
- The Schoolhouse Blizzard of January 12, 1888: This blizzard was unexpected because the weather leading up to it was relatively warm. A combination of sub-zero temperatures, ice, and snow caused the deaths of 235 people, the majority of which were children walking home from school. This was the deadliest natural disaster in North Dakota history.
- The Blizzard of 1920: This blizzard brought 8 inches of snow and strong winds between March 15 and March 18. The winds caused snowdrifts to form, telephone lines to break, rail lines to close, and 34 people to die.
History serves to teach us that what has happened in the past, can and possibly will happen again. For that reason, we know that North Dakota is vulnerable to powerful winter storms and it’s crucial to be prepared.
Our guide on winter storm preparedness has important information on mitigating the effects of the storm, as well as staying safe in the event of long-term or rolling power outages during freezing temperatures. Learn more here!
There are two wildfire seasons in North Dakota. The first one begins in late March and lasts until mid-April. The second one begins in late September and lasts until mid-October. Each year, wildfires burn a total of approximately 13,000 acres.
Depending on the levels of drought, it’s not uncommon for wildfires to spark up around other times of the year, and for the size and intensity of the fires to be greater than during non-drought years. Limited moisture was the reason why 2021 saw over 100,000 total acres burned— that is six times the annual average!
The cause of wildfires in the Peace Garden State is linked to human activity 90% of the time. The good news is that each person can make a difference. For example, do not burn debris during peak fire or drought seasons, do not park vehicles or farm equipment near dry brush, and report smoke sightings to the fire department as soon as possible.
In this guide, you can learn how to protect your home from wildfires and how to evacuate quickly should your community become threatened.
5. Extreme Heat & Drought
North Dakota has a warm summer climate with average high temperatures of 73°F in the south and 67°F in the north. Occasionally you can expect 90°F weather as well, but there are usually no more than 10 days of extreme heat per year.
In any case, an estimated 20,000 North Dakotans are vulnerable to high temperatures. One of the deadliest heat waves on record happened during the summer of 1936 where up to 5,000 people died throughout North America. During that same heat wave, on July 6th, Steele, ND reached 121°F, its highest temperature ever.
With extreme heat comes the risk of drought. North Dakota’s longest drought lasted 162 weeks. It went from June 4, 2002, to July 5, 2005. As of the writing of this article, nearly 12% of the state is faced with exceptional drought, 40% with extreme drought, 40% with severe drought, and the remainder 8% with moderate drought. During times like these, it’s important to conserve water as much as possible.
Some sources suggest that the Peace Garden State will see an increase of up to 50 days of extreme heat by 2050 and they may see longer periods of drought. In order to become prepared, be sure to know the symptoms of heat-related illness. This guide has helpful mitigation strategies and safety tips to consider.
The boundaries of Tornado Alley are not clearly defined, but on some occasions, North Dakota is included within it. An average of 23 tornadoes happen in the state each year.
Since 1950, there have only been three F5 tornadoes. The Fargo tornado, on June 20, 1957, was one of them. Not only was it violent, but it was also deadly. At its peak, it had a width that measured 500 yards. It was on the ground for 21 minutes and sometimes moved as slow as 10 mph, thereby making the destruction even worse. Some homes were swept off of their foundations, 329 were completely destroyed, and 1,035 were significantly damaged. This tornado also caused 103 injures, between 10 and 12 fatalities, and more than $25 million (1957 USD) in damages.
North Dakota is not too mountainous, however certain areas, like the western half of the state, are susceptible to landslides. The regions most affected are hilly landscapes and slopes, badlands, buttes, soft surfaces where the sediment or rocks that lie above it make the ground unstable, ground that is covered in desiccation cracks, and steep river valleys.
The most common types of landslides in the Peace Garden State are rotational slumps. As of 2021, geologists have mapped out 25% of the state— that is, about 11 million acres— and have discovered 11,077 landslides that affected approximately 116,500 acres. The majority of these landslides have only covered about 10 acres, however, the largest one so far was found in the Little Missouri River Valley and it covered 1,724 acres.
One of the worst years for landslide activity in North Dakota was 2011. At least five major highways were affected and several townships experienced damages.
In order to be prepared for a landslide, you should determine your home and community’s level of risk. If there’s some threat to your home, be sure to reinforce hilly areas and slopes.
If your community is at some sort of risk, identify at least one or two alternative routes of transportation. For more tips and ideas, check out this guide.
8. Power Outages
There are many things that can cause a power outage, including severe weather and human error. Regardless of where you live, there’s always a risk of a long-term or rolling power outage.
This was the case during the Texas Ice Storm of February 2021. Even though Texas and North Dakota are more than 1,000 miles apart, more than 7,000 homes in the Peace Garden State experienced rolling outages in hopes of protecting the power grid in Texas. This goes to show that extreme temperatures can have a nationwide impact on our power grids.
Earthquakes are rare in North Dakota but they’re known to happen about once every decade. There are no seismographs in the state because it’s generally stable, however, don’t be surprised if you ever feel a small shaker. The state has experienced 13 quakes in recorded history, of which the majority had a maximum magnitude of 3.7.
Natural disaster resources for North Dakota
North Dakota is inevitably at risk of several natural disasters but there are plenty of resources to help you become prepared and overcome them.
- The NOAA Weather App is a great option for those who want to receive real-time updates of any forecasted storms. The app will automatically send you notifications if any hazardous weather is expected or already occurring near your location.
- The truth about natural disasters is that while they may be equally disruptive and possibly destructive, they’re all very different. Preparing for one disaster type will look different than preparing for another type. Problem is, that when researching how to become prepared, the amount of information is sure to make most people feel overwhelmed. But we don’t want you to feel that way! We already did the research for you and we’ve laid it out in an easy-to-follow guide. For each disaster, we cover mitigation strategies, safety tips, and emergency kit recommendations. You can find all of our disaster guides here. At the end of each guide, be sure to download the free checklist and print it for future use!
- While some people like to learn online, there are others who thrive by learning in the company of other people. The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) is a government-led organization that offers free classes and disaster simulations for the community. If you’re interested and want to learn more, look here to find your local CERT.
- A disaster can strip people from their possessions, their lifestyles, and their comforts. While many of us experience the horrific effects of disasters through our television screens, others are forced to experience them in person. North Dakota’s Volunteer Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) works to bring some level of normalcy to the affected communities by identifying the immediate needs and determining ways to meet them. If you’re interested in becoming part of this solution, check out North Dakota VOAD's website for more information on how to get involved.
- Disaster assistance varies from state to state. In North Dakota, you may want to contact the Department of Emergency Services for more information on which services are available to you.
I hope you enjoyed learning about natural disasters in North Dakota.
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Want to look up another state? Find out which disasters are likely to happen in other parts of the United States here!